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Legal Research and Writing Guide

This guide is for legal reference and Bluebook citation assistance for all NAU students. The information in this guide is not intended as legal advice.

Updating and Validating Your Research

Before you cite a case or statute in a memo or brief, you must determine whether it is still "good law."  For example, a case may be reversed, overruled, vacated, or modified. A statute may be amended, repealed, or declared unconstitutional. At this time, there are no free citator tools. KeyCite is the Westlaw citator. Shepard's is the Lexis citator.

Using "Shepard's Citations" in Nexis Uni

To access Nexis Uni and Shepard's Citations at National American University, click on the Nexis Uni link above.

Directions for Shepardizing a Case or Statute from the Nexis Uni homepage:

In the "All Nexis Uni" Search box, type shep followed by a colon (:)  Then type the citation and click on the red circle. (The colon after "shep" is necessary to run a Shepard's search and not a typical search for the case or statute.)

Example: shep: 456 U.S. 188

Example: shep: 11 U.S.C.S. 541

If you are already viewing a document in Nexis Uni, the Shepard's Preview will appear on the right. Click on the blue Shepardize this document link to see the full Shepard's document.

Lexis Nexis, Shepardize a Document, Nexis Uni Help, (last visited June 30, 2021).

Shepard's Signal Indicators and Treatments

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