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Terrorism and Counterterrorism Studies Guide

Library resources for Henley-Putnam's Terrorism and Counter-terrorism courses.

APA Formatting and Citation

Reference page formatting  

  • All sources listed on the reference page must be cited somewhere in the paper.  
  • Order references alphabetically by author’s last name (or article title if there is no author). 
  • Double space reference list.
  • Format sources using a hanging indent: First line is flush left, all other lines are indented. In Microsoft Word: Go to the Home tab > Paragraph group settings (click on the small arrow at the bottom right) > in the “Special” drop down menu, select “Hanging indent” 


  • List authors in the order they appear in the original source.
  • Spell out each author’s last name. Use initials for first and middle names.
  • Be aware that an organization (e.g., National Institutes of Health) can be an author.
  • If a source has no author, begin the reference with the title of the source.
  • Sources with 7 or fewer authors: List all authors.
  • Sources with 8 or more authors: List first 6 authors, add three ellipses ( . . . ), add last author.


  • If a source has no date, use (n.d.) –no date – in place of the date. 

Article, book, and chapter titles

  • Capitalize ONLY the first word in the title and subtitle (the word that follows a colon or dash).
  • Capitalize proper nouns in the title. 


What is an in-text citation?

An in-text citation is found in the body of a research paper. It tells your reader where you found any information or ideas that are not your own. It is a shortened citation in parentheses and includes the author’s last name, publication year, and the page number (if quoting). 

When is an in-text citation required?

An in-text citation is required whenever you use someone else’s words or ideas:

  • Quoting – Using someone else’s exact words. Make sure to include a page number. If a quote is more than 40 words, use the directions on the last two pages of the handout linked above.
  • Paraphrasing – Rephrasing someone’s writing or ideas into your own words. Page number not required but include if it will help your reader locate the relevant information.
  • Summarizing – Putting the main idea(s) of someone else’s writing into your own words. Page number not required

*** Remember: Each source listed on the reference page must correspond to at least one in-text citation in the body of the paper; each in-text citation must correspond to a source listed on the reference page.

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